Safety issues at Wuhan lab

【国际参考】WHV: 惊闻! 美外交秘文18年就武汉P4实验室已报警 Wuhan lab studying bat coronaviruses at 2018

— 【华盛顿】,2020年4月14日,华盛顿邮报

English version here

2020年4月14日华盛顿12时,【华盛顿邮报】发表 Josh Rogin 的“重磅”信息:美国在 2018 年, 通过当年的外交密文可见, 就【武汉 P4 研究室的安全问题】提醒美国有关部门。它们认为中国在研究“危险病毒” 。。。 细节看文章。中方不知为什么,将有关文章【删除】

石正丽:武汉病毒所新发传染病研究中心主任、武汉国家高等级生物安全实验室(P4)副主任

后面是华盛顿邮报的报道, 是英文(请注意众多连线)

 

下面是“病毒大背景”:(客观信息,无评论)

2019年底,中国重要城市 武汉 出现新型冠状病毒,基于当地政府“无能无知无效”,其病毒扩散导至全中国一个多月处于“暂停”或戒严状态。由于信息不透明及对官方数字缺乏信任,民间有各种恐怖信息,无法证实(有非官方估算,每天就有近2000尸体被火化,远超出正常状况)。武汉于4月8日解禁

武汉病毒处于失控时, 它伴随中国及外国游客“潜入”世界部分国家,今日各位已经看到其恶果。与此同时,世界各地的华人华裔抢购买空所在国的口罩,寄给他们家人或灾区。这些举动在很多国家造成负面影响,因为被“中国游客”带去的病毒,使那些国家也需要口罩自卫。在他们看来“你把病毒带来,还把口罩买空,使我们无法防治?”。近日,欧美(部分有理念的)华人又开始亡羊补牢“进口口罩”以弥补前期造成的坏影响。也有很多是借机发“灾难财”

随着疫情在国际上的散延导致世界(2020年4月13日)近 12万人死亡,外加疫情初期很多有意无意的“只是一个特别的流感,流感死的人更多”等谣言,及在中国只有3000多人死于病毒的官方数字,导致欧美各国不够重视防备措施。世界处于水深火热抗疫工作时,中国厂商大发“灾难财”,出口低略医疗产品,政府则大搞【口罩外交】。

大外宣媒体发挥能量,一方面努力推卸责任,一方面丢锅美国,各种烟雾弹谣言遍地皆是。中国驻法国大使馆网站发表“谣言”信息,大使被法外交部召见去接受【官方抗议】

与此同时,欧洲众多国家(特别是意大利)病情加剧。近日美国情况更为惨重,已有 22,150 死于 冠型病毒。这次病毒被视为“战争行为”,美国及世界准备什么反击报复行为?有各种论述。比较和平的方案是将“罪魁祸首”拉到国际法庭进行审判

法国自上月决定关闭不重要(除食品店,药房,银行)店面,禁止聚会后,决定延续【戒严】至5月11日,外出需要“通行证”

法国医疗系统受到极大压力,部分地区处于“崩溃”状态。外加华人将医护用品(口罩等)全部买空,使法方(警察医护人员)处于困境。每天晚上8点,全法国居民在窗口鼓掌以对医护人员表示【敬意】。目前法国因冠型病毒过世人多为老年人(80岁左右),经济主力没有受到创伤

中国政府拼【复工】,可复工的工厂没有订单,仍有很多处于停工倒闭状态。同时很多工厂“莫名其妙”地起火被摧毁

乌云下一丝光明:法国南部一世界著名(传染病)专家 Pr Didier Raoult,宣布通过一“老药”(便宜,量产)可以得到75%治愈率这是他在法国南部的演讲

请按这个【连线】,可见他是世界排名第一的专家。钟南山(communicable diseases 传染病)没名,他只是一种“肺病小专家” 🙁 (打开连线后,选中国,他只是排名中国第五,世界“无名”)

À l’Institut hospitalo-universitaire à Marseille, le Professeur Raoult annonce que les premiers essais de la chloroquine sont spectaculaires contre le coronavirus. Ce médicament est déjà utilisé contre le paludisme.

 

Pr Didier Raoult

在这种危机时刻,信息的【透明与真实】极为重要,特在此将国际其他媒体的报道供给各位看官

State Department cables warned of safety issues at Wuhan lab studying bat coronaviruses

Two years before the novel coronavirus pandemic upended the world, U.S. Embassy officials visited a Chinese research facility in the city of Wuhan several times and sent two official warnings back to Washington about inadequate safety at the lab, which was conducting risky studies on coronaviruses from bats. The cables have fueled discussions inside the U.S. government about whether this or another Wuhan lab was the source of the virus — even though conclusive proof has yet to emerge.

In January 2018, the U.S. Embassy in Beijing took the unusual step of repeatedly sending U.S. science diplomats to the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), which had in 2015 become China’s first laboratory to achieve the highest level of international bioresearch safety (known as BSL-4). WIV issued a news release in English about the last of these visits, which occurred on March 27, 2018. The U.S. delegation was led by Jamison Fouss, the consul general in Wuhan, and Rick Switzer, the embassy’s counselor of environment, science, technology and health. Last week, WIV erased that statement from its website, though it remains archived on the Internet.

What the U.S. officials learned during their visits concerned them so much that they dispatched two diplomatic cables categorized as Sensitive But Unclassified back to Washington. The cables warned about safety and management weaknesses at the WIV lab and proposed more attention and help. The first cable, which I obtained, also warns that the lab’s work on bat coronaviruses and their potential human transmission represented a risk of a new SARS-like pandemic.

“During interactions with scientists at the WIV laboratory, they noted the new lab has a serious shortage of appropriately trained technicians and investigators needed to safely operate this high-containment laboratory,” states the Jan. 19, 2018, cable, which was drafted by two officials from the embassy’s environment, science and health sections who met with the WIV scientists. (The State Department declined to comment on this and other details of the story.)

The Chinese researchers at WIV were receiving assistance from the Galveston National Laboratory at the University of Texas Medical Branch and other U.S. organizations, but the Chinese requested additional help. The cables argued that the United States should give the Wuhan lab further support, mainly because its research on bat coronaviruses was important but also dangerous.

As the cable noted, the U.S. visitors met with Shi Zhengli, the head of the research project, who had been publishing studies related to bat coronaviruses for many years. In November 2017, just before the U.S. officials’ visit, Shi’s team had published research showing that horseshoe bats they had collected from a cave in Yunnan province were very likely from the same bat population that spawned the SARS coronavirus in 2003.

“Most importantly,” the cable states, “the researchers also showed that various SARS-like coronaviruses can interact with ACE2, the human receptor identified for SARS-coronavirus. This finding strongly suggests that SARS-like coronaviruses from bats can be transmitted to humans to cause SARS-like diseases. From a public health perspective, this makes the continued surveillance of SARS-like coronaviruses in bats and study of the animal-human interface critical to future emerging coronavirus outbreak prediction and prevention.”

The research was designed to prevent the next SARS-like pandemic by anticipating how it might emerge. But even in 2015, other scientists questioned whether Shi’s team was taking unnecessary risks. In October 2014, the U.S. government had imposed a moratorium on funding of any research that makes a virus more deadly or contagious, known as “gain-of-function” experiments.

As many have pointed out, there is no evidence that the virus now plaguing the world was engineered; scientists largely agree it came from animals. But that is not the same as saying it didn’t come from the lab, which spent years testing bat coronaviruses in animals, said Xiao Qiang, a research scientist at the School of Information at the University of California at Berkeley.

“The cable tells us that there have long been concerns about the possibility of the threat to public health that came from this lab’s research, if it was not being adequately conducted and protected,” he said.

There are similar concerns about the nearby Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention lab, which operates at biosecurity level 2, a level significantly less secure than the level-4 standard claimed by the Wuhan Insititute of Virology lab, Xiao said. That’s important because the Chinese government still refuses to answer basic questions about the origin of the novel coronavirus while suppressing any attempts to examine whether either lab was involved.

Sources familiar with the cables said they were meant to sound an alarm about the grave safety concerns at the WIV lab, especially regarding its work with bat coronaviruses. The embassy officials were calling for more U.S. attention to this lab and more support for it, to help it fix its problems.

“The cable was a warning shot,” one U.S. official said. “They were begging people to pay attention to what was going on.”

No extra assistance to the labs was provided by the U.S. government in response to these cables. The cables began to circulate again inside the administration over the past two months as officials debated whether the lab could be the origin of the pandemic and what the implications would be for the U.S. pandemic response and relations with China.

Inside the Trump administration, many national security officials have long suspected either the WIV or the Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention lab was the source of the novel coronavirus outbreak. According to the New York Times, the intelligence community has provided no evidence to confirm this. But one senior administration official told me that the cables provide one more piece of evidence to support the possibility that the pandemic is the result of a lab accident in Wuhan.

“The idea that it was just a totally natural occurrence is circumstantial. The evidence it leaked from the lab is circumstantial. Right now, the ledger on the side of it leaking from the lab is packed with bullet points and there’s almost nothing on the other side,” the official said.

As my colleague David Ignatius noted, the Chinese government’s original story — that the virus emerged from a seafood market in Wuhan — is shaky. Research by Chinese experts published in the Lancet in January showed the first known patient, identified on Dec. 1, had no connection to the market, nor did more than one-third of the cases in the first large cluster. Also, the market didn’t sell bats.

Shi and other WIV researchers have categorically denied this lab was the origin for the novel coronavirus. On Feb. 3, her team was the first to publicly report the virus known as 2019-nCoV was a bat-derived coronavirus.

The Chinese government, meanwhile, has put a total lockdown on information related to the virus origins. Beijing has yet to provide U.S. experts with samples of the novel coronavirus collected from the earliest cases. The Shanghai lab that published the novel coronavirus genome on Jan. 11 was quickly shut down by authorities for “rectification.” Several of the doctors and journalists who reported on the spread early on have disappeared.

On Feb. 14, Chinese President Xi Jinping called for a new biosecurity law to be accelerated. On Wednesday, CNN reported the Chinese government has placed severe restrictions requiring approval before any research institution publishes anything on the origin of the novel coronavirus.

The origin story is not just about blame. It’s crucial to understanding how the novel coronavirus pandemic started because that informs how to prevent the next one. The Chinese government must be transparent and answer the questions about the Wuhan labs because they are vital to our scientific understanding of the virus, said Xiao.

We don’t know whether the novel coronavirus originated in the Wuhan lab, but the cable pointed to the danger there and increases the impetus to find out, he said.
“I don’t think it’s a conspiracy theory. I think it’s a legitimate question that needs to be investigated and answered,” he said. “To understand exactly how this originated is critical knowledge for preventing this from happening in the future.”

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